Annual Review of Cases 2000

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  • user warning: Table './apbc_org_uk_@002d_member/cache_filter' is marked as crashed and last (automatic?) repair failed query: UPDATE cache_filter SET data = '<p>The authors of this report Dawn Turner BSc (Hons) MSc, David Appleby MSc and Emma Magnus BSc (Hons) MSc would like to thank the members of the APBC who submitted their data.</p>\n<p>All data is taken from a sample of the APBC\'s membership who submitted their cases for study.</p>\n<p><strong>The APBC would like to thank Intervet UK Limited for their continuing support and interest in the APBC\'s Annual Review of Cases.</strong></p>\n<h3>BREAKDOWN OF CASES SUBMITTED</h3>\n<div align=\"center\">\n<table width=\"419\" cellspacing=\"1\" cellpadding=\"7\" border=\"1\">\n<tbody>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"20%\" valign=\"TOP\">&nbsp;</td>\n<td width=\"40%\" valign=\"TOP\" colspan=\"2\">Dogs</td>\n<td width=\"40%\" valign=\"TOP\" colspan=\"2\">Cats</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"20%\" valign=\"TOP\">&nbsp;</td>\n<td width=\"20%\" valign=\"TOP\"> Males&nbsp; </td>\n<td width=\"20%\" valign=\"TOP\"> Females </td>\n<td width=\"20%\" valign=\"TOP\"> Males&nbsp; </td>\n<td width=\"20%\" valign=\"TOP\"> Females </td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"20%\" valign=\"TOP\"><b> </b>\n<p align=\"CENTER\"><b> Number</b></p>\n<p align=\"CENTER\"><b> seen</b></p>\n</td>\n<td width=\"20%\" valign=\"TOP\">\n<p align=\"CENTER\">735</p>\n<p align=\"center\">(58%)</p>\n</td>\n<td width=\"20%\" valign=\"TOP\">\n<p align=\"CENTER\">529</p>\n<p align=\"CENTER\">(42%)</p>\n</td>\n<td width=\"20%\" valign=\"TOP\">\n<p align=\"CENTER\">65</p>\n<p align=\"CENTER\">(48%)</p>\n</td>\n<td width=\"20%\" valign=\"TOP\">\n<p align=\"CENTER\">70</p>\n<p align=\"CENTER\">(52%)</p>\n</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"20%\" valign=\"TOP\"><b> </b>\n<p align=\"CENTER\"><b> %Neutered</b></p>\n</td>\n<td width=\"20%\" valign=\"TOP\">\n<p align=\"CENTER\">62</p>\n</td>\n<td width=\"20%\" valign=\"TOP\">\n<p align=\"CENTER\">64</p>\n</td>\n<td width=\"20%\" valign=\"TOP\">\n<p align=\"CENTER\">98</p>\n</td>\n<td width=\"20%\" valign=\"TOP\">\n<p align=\"CENTER\">99</p>\n</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"20%\" valign=\"TOP\"><b> </b>\n<p align=\"CENTER\"><b> Number of</b></p>\n<p align=\"CENTER\"><b> problems</b></p>\n</td>\n<td width=\"20%\" valign=\"TOP\">\n<p align=\"CENTER\">1105</p>\n<p align=\"CENTER\"> (60%)</p>\n</td>\n<td width=\"20%\" valign=\"TOP\">\n<p align=\"CENTER\">744</p>\n<p align=\"CENTER\"> (40%)</p>\n</td>\n<td width=\"20%\" valign=\"TOP\">\n<p align=\"CENTER\">80</p>\n<p align=\"center\">(49%)</p>\n</td>\n<td width=\"20%\" valign=\"TOP\">\n<p align=\"CENTER\">84</p>\n<p align=\"CENTER\">(51%)</p>\n</td>\n</tr>\n</tbody>\n</table>\n</div>\n<p>&nbsp;</p>\n<p>Average number of problems per dog - 1.46 (1.5 per male and 1.4 per female)<br />\nAverage number of problems per cat - 1.21 (1.23 per male and 1.2 per female) </p>\n<p>&nbsp;</p>\n<h3>MOST COMMON BREEDS REFERRED</h3>\n<table width=\"100%\" cellspacing=\"0\" cellpadding=\"0\" border=\"0\">\n<tbody>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"50%\" align=\"left\">\n<div align=\"center\"><strong>Dog breeds </strong></div>\n</td>\n<td width=\"50%\" align=\"left\">\n<div align=\"center\"><strong>Kennel Club Dog Registrations 2000) </strong></div>\n</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"50%\" align=\"left\">Crossbreeds</td>\n<td width=\"50%\" align=\"left\"> Labrador Retriever</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"50%\" align=\"left\">Border Collie</td>\n<td width=\"50%\" align=\"left\">German Shepherd Dog</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"50%\" align=\"left\">German Shepherd Dog</td>\n<td width=\"50%\" align=\"left\">Cocker Spaniel</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"50%\" align=\"left\">Labrador</td>\n<td width=\"50%\" align=\"left\">West Highland White</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"50%\" align=\"left\">Cocker Spaniel</td>\n<td width=\"50%\" align=\"left\">Golden Retriever</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"50%\" align=\"left\">Jack Russell Terrier</td>\n<td width=\"50%\" align=\"left\"> Springer Spaniel</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"50%\" align=\"left\">Springer Spaniel</td>\n<td width=\"50%\" align=\"left\"> Cavalier King Charles Spaniel</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"50%\" align=\"left\">West Highland White Terrier</td>\n<td width=\"50%\" align=\"left\">Staffordshire Bull Terrier</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"50%\" align=\"left\">Golden Retriever</td>\n<td width=\"50%\" align=\"left\">Boxer</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"50%\" align=\"left\">Boxer</td>\n<td width=\"50%\" align=\"left\"> Yorkshire Terrier</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"50%\" align=\"left\">&nbsp;\n<p>&nbsp;</p>\n</td>\n<td width=\"50%\" align=\"left\">&nbsp;</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"50%\" bgcolor=\"#c0c0c0\" align=\"left\"><b> Cat Breeds </b></td>\n<td width=\"50%\" align=\"left\">&nbsp;</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"50%\" align=\"left\">&nbsp;</td>\n<td width=\"50%\" align=\"left\">&nbsp;</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"50%\" align=\"left\"> Domestic Short Hair</td>\n<td width=\"50%\" align=\"left\">&nbsp;</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"50%\" align=\"left\"> Siamese</td>\n<td width=\"50%\" align=\"left\">&nbsp;</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"50%\" align=\"left\"> Burmese</td>\n<td width=\"50%\" align=\"left\">&nbsp;</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"50%\" align=\"left\"> Persian</td>\n<td width=\"50%\" align=\"left\">&nbsp;</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"50%\" align=\"left\"> Domestic Long Hair</td>\n<td width=\"50%\" align=\"left\">&nbsp;</td>\n</tr>\n</tbody>\n</table>\n<p align=\"CENTER\"><img width=\"500\" height=\"396\" align=\"center\" alt=\"Figure 1\" src=\"http://www.apbc.org.uk/2000/Image35.gif\" /></p>\n<p><b>Key to Figure 1</b></p>\n<div align=\"left\">\n<dt>AP Aggression towards people. Possible causes include fear or status </dt>\n</div>\n<div align=\"left\">\n<dt> <b> AD </b> Aggression towards dogs. Possible causes include fear or rank </dt>\n</div>\n<div align=\"left\">\n<dt> <b> SP </b> Separation Problems - occur when separated from owners </dt>\n</div>\n<div align=\"left\">\n<dt> <b> F </b> Fearful and phobic behaviours to auditory and visual stimuli </dt>\n</div>\n<div align=\"left\">\n<dt> <b> AS </b> Attention-seeking behaviours e.g. barking whilst owner on telephone </dt>\n</div>\n<div align=\"left\">\n<dt> <b> Misc </b> Miscellaneous e.g. coprophagy, pica, mounting or escapology </dt>\n</div>\n<div align=\"left\">\n<dt> <b> Ch </b> Inappropriate chase behaviour e.g. towards vehicles or joggers </dt>\n</div>\n<div align=\"left\">\n<dt> <b> HT </b> House training problems </dt>\n</div>\n<div align=\"left\">\n<dt> <b> Car </b> Problems during travel </dt>\n</div>\n<div align=\"left\">\n<dt> <b> T </b> Training problems e.g. poor recall </dt>\n</div>\n<div align=\"left\">\n<dt> <b> RB</b> <b> </b> Repetitive behaviours e.g. tail chasing </dt>\n</div>\n<div align=\"left\">\n<dt> <b> Other</b> Other behaviour problems not classified </dt>\n</div>\n<p>Figure 1 shows the canine behaviour problems that were referred to some members of the APBC (and their associates) during the year 2000. The most common behaviour problem referred was aggression towards people (34%). This category included status-related aggression, fear aggression, possessiveness over owner, food aggression and play biting.</p>\n<p>Aggression towards other dogs was referred in 24% of cases. This category included fear aggression, chase motivated aggression, learned/frustrated play and aggression between same sex/opposite sex dogs in the family.</p>\n<p>After aggression, separation problems were most commonly referred (10%). The most common motivation was anxiety (over-attachment). Symptoms of separation anxiety include destructive behaviour, vocalising and toileting. Other motivations include attention-seeking (a continuation of behaviour learned in the owner\'s presence - destructive behaviour and vocalising), fear (destructive behaviour and vocalising) and boredom (destructive behaviour, vocalising and redirected aggression).</p>\n<p>Fears and phobias were observed in 8% of cases referred. This category included sound and visual fears and phobias.</p>\n<p>The next section of the review will consider changes in the referral rate of the most common behaviour problems seen in the year 2000 over a five year period (1996-2000). Behaviour problems were analysed if the referral rate totalled 100 or more. This resulted in the analysis of status-related aggression (people), fear aggression (people), fear aggression (dogs), aggression between dogs living in the same household and separation problems due to anxiety (over-attachment).</p>\n<p><img width=\"500\" height=\"370\" alt=\"Figure 2\" src=\"http://www.apbc.org.uk/2000/Image36.gif\" /> <img width=\"500\" height=\"378\" align=\"center\" alt=\"Figure 3\" src=\"http://www.apbc.org.uk/2000/Image37.gif\" /></p>\n<p><b>Key To Figures 2 &amp; 3</b></p>\n<p><b>SA </b> Status-related Aggression (People)<br />\n<b>FAP</b> Fear Aggression (People) <br />\n<b>FAD</b> Fear Aggression (Dogs) <br />\n<b>SocA </b> Social Aggression (Dogs)<br />\n<b>SepA </b> Separation Anxiety (Over-attachment) </p>\n<p>Status-related aggression can occur when a dog develops a high sense of status within the family/pack. If the dog is then challenged over certain issues, such as access to furniture, he/she may react aggressively to his/her owner.</p>\n<p>Figures 2 and 3 suggest that the referral rate of status-related aggression has significantly declined since 1996 (10%). In 1997, the referral rate had declined to 7%. However, the decline was not constant as status-related aggression was observed in 8.5% of cases in 1998. This figure then dropped to 5% in 1999 and 2000.</p>\n<p>Fear aggression can occur when a dog encounters people or other dogs for two reasons. Firstly, fear aggression may be shown if a dog is unfamiliar with people or other dogs. This problem often arises through a lack of socialisation during the critical period (6-14 weeks of age). Secondly, a dog will often display fear aggression if he/she has previously had an unpleasant experience with people or other dogs.</p>\n<p>Figures 2 and 3 show that the referral rate of fear aggression towards people has declined from 25% in 1996 to 20% in 1997 followed by an increase in 1998 to 27%. Since then, the referral rate has declined slightly to 26% in 1999 to 25% in 2000.</p>\n<p>Figures 2 and 3 suggest that the referral rate of fear aggression towards other dogs has steadily increased over the years. The referral rate increased from 6% in 1996 to 9% in 1997. The referral rate continued to increase in 1998 to 11% to 13% (1999) and to 14% (2000).</p>\n<p>Aggression between dogs living in the same household is usually about social status. This can also result in the performance of defensive aggression from the lower-ranking dog.</p>\n<p>Figures 2 and 3 show the referral rate of aggression between dogs living in the same household since 1996. The referral rate of social aggression increased from 4% in 1996 to 7% in 1997 and 1998, 6% in 1999 and 8% in 2000.</p>\n<p>Separation anxiety is a condition that affects dogs who are over-attached to their owners. Dogs suffering from separation anxiety become extremely anxious and distressed when they are separated from their owners. This results in the performance of destructive behaviour, vocalisation and/or house soiling.</p>\n<p>Figures 2 and 3 show the referral rate of separation anxiety since 1996. In 1996, the referral rate was 14%. In 1997 and 1998 the referral rate declined to 7.5% and decreased slightly in 1999 and 2000 to 7%. This drop was probably due to the fact that some members were actively seeking the referral of separation problems due to anxiety, for clinical research in 1996.</p>\n<p align=\"CENTER\"><a name=\"Separation Anxiety\"><img width=\"500\" height=\"390\" border=\"0\" alt=\"Figure 4\" src=\"http://www.apbc.org.uk/2000/report1.gif\" /></a></p>\n<p align=\"left\">\'Other\' - pet shop, found as a stray or previous environment is unknown </p>\n<p> Figure 4 shows the environment that dogs were obtained from that were referred to some members of the APBC (and their associates) with separation problems due to over-attachment during 2000. The referral rate of separation problems appears to be higher in dogs obtained from a rescue environment (34%). Dogs referred with separation anxiety were obtained from a domestic or \'other\' environment in 26% of cases compared to 14% from a kennel environment. </p>\n<p><img width=\"500\" height=\"384\" alt=\"Figure 5\" src=\"http://www.apbc.org.uk/2000/Image40.gif\" /></p>\n<p>Figure 5 shows the environment that dogs were obtained from that were referred to some members of the APBC (and their associates) with separation anxiety during 1996 - 1999. In each year, the referral rate of separation anxiety was higher in dogs obtained from a rescue environment. Dogs obtained from \'other\' environments had the lowest referral rates of separation anxiety in each year.</p>\n<h3>SUMMARY OF CANINE CASES</h3>\n<ul>\n<li>\n<p align=\"left\">The top three behaviour problems referred during 2000 were aggression towards people, aggression towards dogs and separation problems.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p align=\"left\">The most common breeds referred during 2000 were Crossbreeds, Border Collies and German Shepherd Dogs.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p align=\"left\">The referral rate of status-related aggression has declined since 1996.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p align=\"left\">The referral rate of fear aggression towards dogs has increased since 1996.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p align=\"left\">The referral rate of separation anxiety has declined since 1996, but has remained near constant after the end of the clinical trial that studied separation problems due to hyper-attachment in which some of the membership was involved.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p align=\"left\">The referral rate of separation problems is higher in dogs that have been obtained from a rescue centre.</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n<p align=\"left\">&nbsp;</p>\n<h3>FELINE CASES</h3>\n<p><img width=\"500\" height=\"384\" alt=\"Figure 6\" src=\"http://www.apbc.org.uk/2000/Image41.gif\" /></p>\n<p align=\"left\"><b>Key To Figure 6</b></p>\n<dl>\n<div align=\"left\">\n<dt>AC Aggression towards cats. Possible causes include territory or social.</dt>\n</div>\n<div align=\"left\">\n<dt>IM Indoor marking. Includes spraying, middening or scratching.</dt>\n</div>\n<div align=\"left\">\n<dt>HT House training problems.</dt>\n</div>\n<div align=\"left\">\n<dt>AP Aggression towards people. Possible causes include fear.</dt>\n</div>\n<div align=\"left\">\n<dt>B Bonding problems e.g. over attachment.</dt>\n</div>\n<div align=\"left\">\n<dt>F Fearful and phobic behaviour to auditory or visual stimuli.</dt>\n</div>\n<div align=\"left\">\n<dt>Misc Miscellaneous behaviour problems e.g. repetitive behaviours.</dt>\n</div>\n<div align=\"left\">\n<dt>Other Other behaviour problems not classified.</dt>\n</div>\n<div align=\"left\">\n<dt>P Pica.</dt>\n</div>\n<div align=\"left\">\n<dt>AS Attention seeking behaviours.</dt>\n</div>\n</dl>\n<p>Figure 6 shows the feline behaviour problems that were referred to some members of the APBC (and their associates) during the year 2000. The most common behaviour problem referred was aggression towards cats (23%). This category included territorial aggression, redirected aggression and social aggression within the home.</p>\n<p>Both indoor marking and house training problems were observed in 21% of cases. The indoor marking category included spraying, middening and scratching. The house training category included inappropriate toileting and lack of appropriate training.</p>\n<p>Aggression towards people was observed in 12% of cases referred. This category included redirected aggression, predatory aggression, fear aggression, food guarding, petting/biting syndrome, learned aggression and idiopathic aggression.</p>\n<p>The next section of the review will consider changes in the referral rate of the three most common behaviour problems seen in the year 2000, over a five year period. Several behaviour problems had to be eliminated due to low numbers in the data. The behaviour problems that have been analysed are social aggression within the home (cats), inappropriate toileting and spraying.</p>\n<p><a name=\"Most common feline\"><img width=\"500\" height=\"375\" alt=\"Figure 7\" src=\"http://www.apbc.org.uk/2000/Image42.gif\" /></a></p>\n<p><img width=\"500\" height=\"374\" alt=\"Figure 8\" src=\"http://www.apbc.org.uk/2000/Image43.gif\" /></p>\n<div align=\"left\">\n<dt><strong>Key To Figures 7 &amp; 8</strong></dt>\n</div>\n<div align=\"left\">\n<dt>SA Social Aggression Within The Home (Cats)</dt>\n</div>\n<div align=\"left\">\n<dt>IT Inappropriate Toileting</dt>\n</div>\n<div align=\"left\">\n<dt>SP Spraying</dt>\n</div>\n<p>When aggressive behaviour is exhibited between cats living in the same household, the individuals are usually attempting to defend their territory and resources.</p>\n<p>The referral rate of social aggression within the home appears to have increased over time. In 1996, the referral rate was 11%. Since then the referral rate has gradually increased from 13% (1997) to 18% (1998) to 23% (1999 &amp; 2000).</p>\n<p>Inappropriate toileting involves the deposition of urine and/or faeces in the home other than the use of a litter tray.</p>\n<p>Over the years, the referral rate for inappropriate toileting has been varied. In 1996, the referral rate was 6%. This increased to 12% in 1997. In 1998, the referral rate was 11% followed by a decline in 1999 (6%) and an increase in 2000 (16%).</p>\n<p>Spraying is a form of scent marking. When cats spray, they usually deposit small amounts of urine on vertical surfaces.</p>\n<p>In recent years, the referral rate for spraying appears to have declined. In 1995 the referral rate was 39%. The referral rate then declined to 22% in 1997 and increased to 33% in 1998. In 1999, the referral rate for spraying declined to 14% and increased to 18% in 2000.</p>\n<h3>SUMMARY OF FELINE CASES</h3>\n<ul>\n<li>\n<p align=\"left\">The top three behaviour problems referred during 2000 were aggression towards cats, indoor marking and house training problems.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p align=\"left\">The most common breeds referred during 2000 were Domestic Short Hair, Siamese and Burmese cats.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p align=\"left\">The referral rate of social aggression within the home (cats) has increased since 1996.</p>\n</li>\n<li>\n<p align=\"left\">The referral rate of spraying has declined since 1996.</p>\n</li>\n</ul>\n', created = 1493480327, expire = 1493566727, headers = '', serialized = 0 WHERE cid = '2:909e71a4305f0ac2b7edddfda8942435' in /home/jbellapbc/public_html/includes/cache.inc on line 108.
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  • user warning: Table './apbc_org_uk_@002d_member/cache_filter' is marked as crashed and last (automatic?) repair failed query: UPDATE cache_filter SET data = '<p>Helps new owners find the right puppy for them and educate it successfully using gentle, positive methods that are fast effective and fun. (Please note that this book was first published in 2000 titled The Ideal Puppy). Price includes UK P&amp;P. Please email <span class=\"spamspan\"><span class=\"u\">info</span> [at] <span class=\"d\">apbc [dot] org [dot] uk</span></span> for international postage.</p>\n', created = 1493480327, expire = 1493566727, headers = '', serialized = 0 WHERE cid = '1:0f748e982fb42adad5dd260d9f2ecd5f' in /home/jbellapbc/public_html/includes/cache.inc on line 108.
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  • user warning: Table './apbc_org_uk_@002d_member/cache_filter' is marked as crashed and last (automatic?) repair failed query: UPDATE cache_filter SET data = '<p><img style=\"width: 257px; height: 384px;\" class=\"img-right-border\" alt=\"dog on leash dominance status aggression\" src=\"/sites/default/files/images/dog-on-lead.jpg\" />The subject of how dominance should be defined is often discussed. In particular there has been criticism that it is often misdiagnosed as the cause of behaviour problems. Obviously such criticism is correct but some commentators have also tried to re-interpret the effect of the treatment programmes typically recommended for &quot;dominance&quot; problems.</p>\n', created = 1493480327, expire = 1493566727, headers = '', serialized = 0 WHERE cid = '2:1ec5545846468e8fc47ca967f71e1b6d' in /home/jbellapbc/public_html/includes/cache.inc on line 108.

The authors of this report Dawn Turner BSc (Hons) MSc, David Appleby MSc and Emma Magnus BSc (Hons) MSc would like to thank the members of the APBC who submitted their data.

All data is taken from a sample of the APBC's membership who submitted their cases for study.

The APBC would like to thank Intervet UK Limited for their continuing support and interest in the APBC's Annual Review of Cases.

BREAKDOWN OF CASES SUBMITTED

  Dogs Cats
  Males  Females Males  Females

Number

seen

735

(58%)

529

(42%)

65

(48%)

70

(52%)

%Neutered

62

64

98

99

Number of

problems

1105

(60%)

744

(40%)

80

(49%)

84

(51%)

 

Average number of problems per dog - 1.46 (1.5 per male and 1.4 per female)
Average number of problems per cat - 1.21 (1.23 per male and 1.2 per female)

 

MOST COMMON BREEDS REFERRED

Dog breeds
Kennel Club Dog Registrations 2000)
Crossbreeds Labrador Retriever
Border Collie German Shepherd Dog
German Shepherd Dog Cocker Spaniel
Labrador West Highland White
Cocker Spaniel Golden Retriever
Jack Russell Terrier Springer Spaniel
Springer Spaniel Cavalier King Charles Spaniel
West Highland White Terrier Staffordshire Bull Terrier
Golden Retriever Boxer
Boxer Yorkshire Terrier
 

 

 
Cat Breeds  
   
Domestic Short Hair  
Siamese  
Burmese  
Persian  
Domestic Long Hair  

Figure 1

Key to Figure 1

AP Aggression towards people. Possible causes include fear or status
AD Aggression towards dogs. Possible causes include fear or rank
SP Separation Problems - occur when separated from owners
F Fearful and phobic behaviours to auditory and visual stimuli
AS Attention-seeking behaviours e.g. barking whilst owner on telephone
Misc Miscellaneous e.g. coprophagy, pica, mounting or escapology
Ch Inappropriate chase behaviour e.g. towards vehicles or joggers
HT House training problems
Car Problems during travel
T Training problems e.g. poor recall
RB Repetitive behaviours e.g. tail chasing
Other Other behaviour problems not classified

Figure 1 shows the canine behaviour problems that were referred to some members of the APBC (and their associates) during the year 2000. The most common behaviour problem referred was aggression towards people (34%). This category included status-related aggression, fear aggression, possessiveness over owner, food aggression and play biting.

Aggression towards other dogs was referred in 24% of cases. This category included fear aggression, chase motivated aggression, learned/frustrated play and aggression between same sex/opposite sex dogs in the family.

After aggression, separation problems were most commonly referred (10%). The most common motivation was anxiety (over-attachment). Symptoms of separation anxiety include destructive behaviour, vocalising and toileting. Other motivations include attention-seeking (a continuation of behaviour learned in the owner's presence - destructive behaviour and vocalising), fear (destructive behaviour and vocalising) and boredom (destructive behaviour, vocalising and redirected aggression).

Fears and phobias were observed in 8% of cases referred. This category included sound and visual fears and phobias.

The next section of the review will consider changes in the referral rate of the most common behaviour problems seen in the year 2000 over a five year period (1996-2000). Behaviour problems were analysed if the referral rate totalled 100 or more. This resulted in the analysis of status-related aggression (people), fear aggression (people), fear aggression (dogs), aggression between dogs living in the same household and separation problems due to anxiety (over-attachment).

Figure 2 Figure 3

Key To Figures 2 & 3

SA Status-related Aggression (People)
FAP Fear Aggression (People)
FAD Fear Aggression (Dogs)
SocA Social Aggression (Dogs)
SepA Separation Anxiety (Over-attachment)

Status-related aggression can occur when a dog develops a high sense of status within the family/pack. If the dog is then challenged over certain issues, such as access to furniture, he/she may react aggressively to his/her owner.

Figures 2 and 3 suggest that the referral rate of status-related aggression has significantly declined since 1996 (10%). In 1997, the referral rate had declined to 7%. However, the decline was not constant as status-related aggression was observed in 8.5% of cases in 1998. This figure then dropped to 5% in 1999 and 2000.

Fear aggression can occur when a dog encounters people or other dogs for two reasons. Firstly, fear aggression may be shown if a dog is unfamiliar with people or other dogs. This problem often arises through a lack of socialisation during the critical period (6-14 weeks of age). Secondly, a dog will often display fear aggression if he/she has previously had an unpleasant experience with people or other dogs.

Figures 2 and 3 show that the referral rate of fear aggression towards people has declined from 25% in 1996 to 20% in 1997 followed by an increase in 1998 to 27%. Since then, the referral rate has declined slightly to 26% in 1999 to 25% in 2000.

Figures 2 and 3 suggest that the referral rate of fear aggression towards other dogs has steadily increased over the years. The referral rate increased from 6% in 1996 to 9% in 1997. The referral rate continued to increase in 1998 to 11% to 13% (1999) and to 14% (2000).

Aggression between dogs living in the same household is usually about social status. This can also result in the performance of defensive aggression from the lower-ranking dog.

Figures 2 and 3 show the referral rate of aggression between dogs living in the same household since 1996. The referral rate of social aggression increased from 4% in 1996 to 7% in 1997 and 1998, 6% in 1999 and 8% in 2000.

Separation anxiety is a condition that affects dogs who are over-attached to their owners. Dogs suffering from separation anxiety become extremely anxious and distressed when they are separated from their owners. This results in the performance of destructive behaviour, vocalisation and/or house soiling.

Figures 2 and 3 show the referral rate of separation anxiety since 1996. In 1996, the referral rate was 14%. In 1997 and 1998 the referral rate declined to 7.5% and decreased slightly in 1999 and 2000 to 7%. This drop was probably due to the fact that some members were actively seeking the referral of separation problems due to anxiety, for clinical research in 1996.

Figure 4

'Other' - pet shop, found as a stray or previous environment is unknown

Figure 4 shows the environment that dogs were obtained from that were referred to some members of the APBC (and their associates) with separation problems due to over-attachment during 2000. The referral rate of separation problems appears to be higher in dogs obtained from a rescue environment (34%). Dogs referred with separation anxiety were obtained from a domestic or 'other' environment in 26% of cases compared to 14% from a kennel environment.

Figure 5

Figure 5 shows the environment that dogs were obtained from that were referred to some members of the APBC (and their associates) with separation anxiety during 1996 - 1999. In each year, the referral rate of separation anxiety was higher in dogs obtained from a rescue environment. Dogs obtained from 'other' environments had the lowest referral rates of separation anxiety in each year.

SUMMARY OF CANINE CASES

  • The top three behaviour problems referred during 2000 were aggression towards people, aggression towards dogs and separation problems.

  • The most common breeds referred during 2000 were Crossbreeds, Border Collies and German Shepherd Dogs.

  • The referral rate of status-related aggression has declined since 1996.

  • The referral rate of fear aggression towards dogs has increased since 1996.

  • The referral rate of separation anxiety has declined since 1996, but has remained near constant after the end of the clinical trial that studied separation problems due to hyper-attachment in which some of the membership was involved.

  • The referral rate of separation problems is higher in dogs that have been obtained from a rescue centre.

 

FELINE CASES

Figure 6

Key To Figure 6

AC Aggression towards cats. Possible causes include territory or social.
IM Indoor marking. Includes spraying, middening or scratching.
HT House training problems.
AP Aggression towards people. Possible causes include fear.
B Bonding problems e.g. over attachment.
F Fearful and phobic behaviour to auditory or visual stimuli.
Misc Miscellaneous behaviour problems e.g. repetitive behaviours.
Other Other behaviour problems not classified.
P Pica.
AS Attention seeking behaviours.

Figure 6 shows the feline behaviour problems that were referred to some members of the APBC (and their associates) during the year 2000. The most common behaviour problem referred was aggression towards cats (23%). This category included territorial aggression, redirected aggression and social aggression within the home.

Both indoor marking and house training problems were observed in 21% of cases. The indoor marking category included spraying, middening and scratching. The house training category included inappropriate toileting and lack of appropriate training.

Aggression towards people was observed in 12% of cases referred. This category included redirected aggression, predatory aggression, fear aggression, food guarding, petting/biting syndrome, learned aggression and idiopathic aggression.

The next section of the review will consider changes in the referral rate of the three most common behaviour problems seen in the year 2000, over a five year period. Several behaviour problems had to be eliminated due to low numbers in the data. The behaviour problems that have been analysed are social aggression within the home (cats), inappropriate toileting and spraying.

Figure 7

Figure 8

Key To Figures 7 & 8
SA Social Aggression Within The Home (Cats)
IT Inappropriate Toileting
SP Spraying

When aggressive behaviour is exhibited between cats living in the same household, the individuals are usually attempting to defend their territory and resources.

The referral rate of social aggression within the home appears to have increased over time. In 1996, the referral rate was 11%. Since then the referral rate has gradually increased from 13% (1997) to 18% (1998) to 23% (1999 & 2000).

Inappropriate toileting involves the deposition of urine and/or faeces in the home other than the use of a litter tray.

Over the years, the referral rate for inappropriate toileting has been varied. In 1996, the referral rate was 6%. This increased to 12% in 1997. In 1998, the referral rate was 11% followed by a decline in 1999 (6%) and an increase in 2000 (16%).

Spraying is a form of scent marking. When cats spray, they usually deposit small amounts of urine on vertical surfaces.

In recent years, the referral rate for spraying appears to have declined. In 1995 the referral rate was 39%. The referral rate then declined to 22% in 1997 and increased to 33% in 1998. In 1999, the referral rate for spraying declined to 14% and increased to 18% in 2000.

SUMMARY OF FELINE CASES

  • The top three behaviour problems referred during 2000 were aggression towards cats, indoor marking and house training problems.

  • The most common breeds referred during 2000 were Domestic Short Hair, Siamese and Burmese cats.

  • The referral rate of social aggression within the home (cats) has increased since 1996.

  • The referral rate of spraying has declined since 1996.