Annual Review of Cases 1998

  • user warning: Table './apbc_org_uk_@002d_member/cache_filter' is marked as crashed and last (automatic?) repair failed query: SELECT data, created, headers, expire, serialized FROM cache_filter WHERE cid = '2:d9a49fc91a452cb40a28de1848ec24ef' in /home/jbellapbc/public_html/includes/cache.inc on line 25.
  • user warning: Table './apbc_org_uk_@002d_member/cache_filter' is marked as crashed and last (automatic?) repair failed query: UPDATE cache_filter SET data = '<p>The authors of this report Emma Magnus BSc (Hons) MSc, David Appleby dipCABC and Gwen Bailey BSc (Hons) would like to thank the members of the APBC who submitted their data.</p>\n<p>The APBC would like to thank Intervet UK Limited for their continuing support and interest in the APBC&rsquo;s Annual Review of Cases.</p>\n<h2>Breakdown of cases submitted</h2>\n<table width=\"375\" cellspacing=\"0\" cellpadding=\"2\" border=\"0\">\n<tbody>\n<tr>\n<td>&nbsp;</td>\n<td colspan=\"2\">\n<p align=\"center\"><b>Dogs </b></p>\n</td>\n<td colspan=\"2\">\n<p align=\"center\"><b>Cats</b></p>\n</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"27%\" valign=\"top\">&nbsp;</td>\n<td width=\"18%\" valign=\"top\">\n<p align=\"center\"><b>Males</b></p>\n</td>\n<td width=\"18%\" valign=\"top\">\n<p align=\"center\"><b>Females</b></p>\n</td>\n<td width=\"18%\" valign=\"top\">\n<p align=\"center\"><b>Males</b></p>\n</td>\n<td width=\"18%\" valign=\"top\">\n<p align=\"center\"><b>Females</b></p>\n</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td align=\"center\"><strong>Number seen</strong></td>\n<td align=\"center\">777</td>\n<td align=\"center\">474</td>\n<td align=\"center\">50</td>\n<td align=\"center\">36</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"27%\" valign=\"top\">\n<p align=\"center\"><b>% seen</b></p>\n</td>\n<td width=\"18%\" valign=\"top\">\n<p align=\"center\">62</p>\n</td>\n<td width=\"18%\" valign=\"top\">\n<p align=\"center\">38</p>\n</td>\n<td width=\"18%\" valign=\"top\">\n<p align=\"center\">57</p>\n</td>\n<td width=\"18%\" valign=\"top\">\n<p align=\"center\">43</p>\n</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"27%\" valign=\"top\">\n<p align=\"center\"><b>% Neutered</b></p>\n</td>\n<td width=\"18%\" valign=\"top\">\n<p align=\"center\">55</p>\n</td>\n<td width=\"18%\" valign=\"top\">\n<p align=\"center\">64</p>\n</td>\n<td width=\"18%\" valign=\"top\">\n<p align=\"center\">98</p>\n</td>\n<td width=\"18%\" valign=\"top\">\n<p align=\"center\">100</p>\n</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td align=\"center\"><strong>Number of problems</strong></td>\n<td align=\"center\">1230</td>\n<td align=\"center\">707</td>\n<td align=\"center\">60</td>\n<td align=\"center\">36</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"27%\" valign=\"top\">\n<p align=\"center\"><b>% of problems</b></p>\n</td>\n<td width=\"18%\" valign=\"top\">\n<p align=\"center\">64</p>\n</td>\n<td width=\"18%\" valign=\"top\">\n<p align=\"center\">36</p>\n</td>\n<td width=\"18%\" valign=\"top\">\n<p align=\"center\">52</p>\n</td>\n<td width=\"18%\" valign=\"top\">\n<p align=\"center\">48</p>\n</td>\n</tr>\n</tbody>\n</table>\n<p>Average number of problems per dog - 1.55 (1.58 per male and 1.49 per female)</p>\n<h2>MOST COMMON BREEDS REFERRED</h2>\n<p>&nbsp;</p>\n<table cellspacing=\"0\" cellpadding=\"2\" border=\"0\">\n<tbody>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"25%\" bgcolor=\"#c0c0c0\"><b>Male dog breeds</b></td>\n<td width=\"25%\" bgcolor=\"#ffffff\">&nbsp;</td>\n<td width=\"25%\" bgcolor=\"#c0c0c0\"><b>Female dog breeds</b></td>\n<td width=\"25%\" bgcolor=\"#ffffff\">&nbsp;</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td colspan=\"2\">Crossbreeds</td>\n<td colspan=\"2\">Crossbreeds</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td colspan=\"2\">German Shepherd Dogs</td>\n<td colspan=\"2\">German Shepherd Dogs</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td colspan=\"2\">Border Collie</td>\n<td colspan=\"2\">Border Collie</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td colspan=\"2\">Springer Spaniel</td>\n<td colspan=\"2\">Labrador</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td colspan=\"2\">Labrador</td>\n<td colspan=\"2\">Springer Spaniel / Boxer</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td colspan=\"2\">Jack Russell Terrier / West Highland White/</td>\n<td colspan=\"2\">Golden Retriever</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td colspan=\"2\">Golden Retriever</td>\n<td colspan=\"2\">&nbsp;</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td colspan=\"2\">Cocker Spaniel</td>\n<td colspan=\"2\">Jack Russell Terrier</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td colspan=\"2\">Staffordshire Bull Terrier</td>\n<td colspan=\"2\">West Highland White</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td colspan=\"2\">Schnauzer (all types)</td>\n<td colspan=\"2\">Staffordshire Bull Terrier / Springer Spaniel</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td colspan=\"2\">Dachshund (all types)</td>\n<td colspan=\"2\">Yorkshire Terrier</td>\n</tr>\n</tbody>\n</table>\n<p>&nbsp;</p>\n<table cellspacing=\"0\" cellpadding=\"0\" border=\"0\">\n<tbody>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"25%\" bgcolor=\"#c0c0c0\"><b>Cat breeds </b></td>\n<td width=\"25%\" bgcolor=\"#ffffff\">&nbsp;</td>\n<td width=\"50%\">&nbsp;</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td colspan=\"2\">Domestic Short Hair</td>\n<td>&nbsp;</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td colspan=\"2\">Burmese</td>\n<td>&nbsp;</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td colspan=\"2\">Siamese</td>\n<td>&nbsp;</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td colspan=\"2\">Persian</td>\n<td>&nbsp;</td>\n</tr>\n</tbody>\n</table>\n<h2>CANINE CASES</h2>\n<p><img width=\"500\" height=\"424\" src=\"http://www.apbc.org.uk/apbc_images/981.gif\" alt=\"\" /></p>\n<table cellspacing=\"0\" border=\"0\">\n<tbody>\n<tr>\n<td colspan=\"2\"><strong>K</strong><strong>ey to Graph</strong></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td colspan=\"2\">&nbsp;</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>AP</td>\n<td>Aggression towards people. Possible causes include fear or status.</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>AD</td>\n<td>Aggression towards dogs. Possible causes include fear or rank.</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>SP</td>\n<td>Separation Problems - occur when separated from the owners.</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>AS</td>\n<td>Attention seeking behaviours. e.g. barking whilst on telephone.</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>F</td>\n<td>Fearful and phobic behaviour to auditory or visual stimuli</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>RB</td>\n<td>Repetitive behaviours. e.g. tail chasing.</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Ch</td>\n<td>Inappropriate chase behaviour. e.g. towards vehicles or joggers.</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>HT</td>\n<td>House training problems.</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>T</td>\n<td>Training problems e.g. poor recall.</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>O</td>\n<td>Others. e.g. Escapology, Coprophagy and mounting.</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>Car</td>\n<td>Problems during travel.</td>\n</tr>\n</tbody>\n</table>\n<h2>Socialisation and Environmental Conditioning</h2>\n<p>The early experience of all animals has a profound influence on their later development. Adequate socialisation and environmental conditioning should be introduced as soon as possible, and maintained throughout the first year of life.</p>\n<p>Socialisation is the process of introducing a variety of people and animals. Environmental conditioning (also called <i>Habituation</i>) is the process of introducing unusual environmental stimuli such as traffic, household noises and bad weather.</p>\n<p>In previous years we have considered the importance of adequate socialisation in terms of its effect on behaviour problems. In 1995 we found that fear aggression towards other dogs and strangers, separation problems caused by fear, and phobic behaviours were more likely to occur in dogs that had not been adequately stimulated during their first year of life. We found that these problems were more likely to occur in dogs that had been reared in a kennel or kennel-type environment from birth.</p>\n<p>This year we decided to look at the most common behaviour problems and percentage of dogs referred with these problems that, in the counsellors opinion had been well socialised during the first year of life.</p>\n<table cellspacing=\"0\" cellpadding=\"0\" border=\"1\">\n<tbody>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"66%\" valign=\"top\">\n<p align=\"left\"><b>Problem</b></p>\n</td>\n<td width=\"34%\" valign=\"top\">\n<p align=\"center\"><b>Percentage</b></p>\n</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"66%\" valign=\"top\">Status Aggression towards owners</td>\n<td width=\"34%\" valign=\"top\">\n<p align=\"center\">59.6</p>\n</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"66%\" valign=\"top\">Attention Seeking Behaviours</td>\n<td width=\"34%\" valign=\"top\">\n<p align=\"center\">55.8</p>\n</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"66%\" valign=\"top\">Separation anxiety</td>\n<td width=\"34%\" valign=\"top\">\n<p align=\"center\">52</p>\n</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"66%\" valign=\"top\">Fears and phobias</td>\n<td width=\"34%\" valign=\"top\">\n<p align=\"center\">47.5</p>\n</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"66%\" valign=\"top\">Separation problems due to fear</td>\n<td width=\"34%\" valign=\"top\">\n<p align=\"center\">42.9</p>\n</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"66%\" valign=\"top\">Fear aggression towards people</td>\n<td width=\"34%\" valign=\"top\">\n<p align=\"center\">39.7</p>\n</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"66%\" valign=\"top\">Fear aggression towards other dogs</td>\n<td width=\"34%\" valign=\"top\">\n<p align=\"center\">36.2</p>\n</td>\n</tr>\n</tbody>\n</table>\n<p>As may have been predicted, behavioural problems associated with confidence feature more highly in well-socialised animals whereas problems due to fear and anxiety feature less strongly.</p>\n<h2>NUMBER OF PEOPLE WITHIN THE HOME (CANINE CASES)</h2>\n<table cellspacing=\"0\" cellpadding=\"0\" border=\"1\">\n<tbody>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"76%\" valign=\"top\">\n<p align=\"left\"><strong>Profile of owners</strong></p>\n</td>\n<td width=\"24%\" valign=\"top\">\n<p align=\"center\"><strong>% of cases</strong></p>\n</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"76%\" valign=\"top\">One male and one female</td>\n<td width=\"24%\" valign=\"top\">\n<p align=\"center\">44.4</p>\n</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"76%\" valign=\"top\">One owner (male or female)</td>\n<td width=\"24%\" valign=\"top\">\n<p align=\"center\">19.2</p>\n</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"76%\" valign=\"top\">One male and one female and children under 18 years</td>\n<td width=\"24%\" valign=\"top\">\n<p align=\"center\">18.6</p>\n</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"76%\" valign=\"top\">One male and one female and one child under 18 years</td>\n<td width=\"24%\" valign=\"top\">\n<p align=\"center\">15.3</p>\n</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"76%\" valign=\"top\">Others</td>\n<td width=\"24%\" valign=\"top\">\n<p align=\"center\">11.7</p>\n</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"76%\" valign=\"top\">Mixture of males <i>and</i> females over 18 years</td>\n<td width=\"24%\" valign=\"top\">\n<p align=\"center\">8.5</p>\n</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"76%\" valign=\"top\">Two same sex owners (males or females)</td>\n<td width=\"24%\" valign=\"top\">\n<p align=\"center\">5.7</p>\n</td>\n</tr>\n</tbody>\n</table>\n<p>The most common owners of the dogs referred for this Review are one male and one female within the home. The second most common profile was one male or female owner. The third profile was a family comprising of a male and female and children under 18 years of age.</p>\n<p>Considering the situation of one male and one female, we found that the most likely behaviour problem to be referred was fear aggression towards dogs and fear aggression towards people encountered outside the home. Of these cases we found that approximately one quarter of them had had a canine companion during the first year of life. These dogs were also more likely to be the only dogs in the home at the time of referral.</p>\n<p>Dogs within the second profile of one male or female owner were most likely to display status aggression if they were with a male and fear aggression towards other dogs if they were with a female. In both cases approximately 60% had been castrated and the counsellor considered 55% as having been adequately socialised. These dogs were most likely to be the only dogs in the home and approximately 30% had had a canine companion during the first year of life.</p>\n<p>With the family unit of one male, one female and children under 18 years of age, status related aggression was found to be the most common problem referred. Of these dogs, 76% were the only dog in the home, only 15% had a companion during their first year of life and 65% were considered as being well socialised.</p>\n<h2>OTHER DOGS WITHIN THE HOME</h2>\n<p>In last year\'s Annual Review of Cases we looked at the referral of behaviour problems with regards to the number of dogs within the home. This year we have expanded on this to consider whether or not the dog also had a canine companion during the first year of life.</p>\n<p>Of the 1251 canine problems considered for this report 387 (30%) were known to have had a canine companion during their first year of life. Of these dogs, 201 (52%) were living with one other dog when they were referred to a behaviour counsellor. This would probably be expected due to the continuing existence of the dog that was the companion during the first year of life or owner preference.</p>\n<p>Of the 864 remaining dogs (70%) who did not have a canine companion during the first year of life or were not known to have had a canine companion during this time, 680 (79%) were living as the only dog within the home when they were referred.</p>\n<p>The two problems of most interest to this section are fear aggression towards other dogs and aggression between dogs in the same home. The dogs that displayed fear aggression towards other dogs were found to be less likely to have been socialised or to have had a canine companion during their first year of life than the others that were referred for aggression towards another dog in the home.</p>\n<p>In the first graph, the most important factor apparent in fear aggression towards other canines is the pet behaviour counsellor\'s assessment of socialisation. The presence of another dog during the first year of life does not appear to be as important although these two can be linked.</p>\n<p align=\"center\"><strong>Fear Aggression towards canines - only canine in home</strong></p>\n<p><img width=\"500\" height=\"368\" src=\"http://www.apbc.org.uk/apbc_images/982.gif\" alt=\"\" /></p>\n<p>In the second graph, it appears that it is more likely that a dog that has lived with another dog will be aggressive to another dog it has lived with especially if it can be considered as having been well socialised.</p>\n<p align=\"center\"><strong>Aggression between canines in the same home - two canines in home</strong></p>\n<p><img width=\"500\" height=\"368\" src=\"http://www.apbc.org.uk/apbc_images/983.gif\" alt=\"\" /></p>\n<p>Adequate socialisation with other canines needs to extend beyond one dog encountered within the home. Young dogs need to encounter several dogs of differing breeds to be able to adapt varying sizes and colours adequately.</p>\n<p>Living with another dog within the first year of life is not a good enough substitute for adequate socialisation.</p>\n<h2>AGE WHEN REFERRED AND BEHAVIOUR PROBLEM RECORDED CANINE</h2>\n<table cellspacing=\"0\" cellpadding=\"6\" border=\"1\">\n<tbody>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"26%\" valign=\"top\" height=\"53\">\n<p align=\"center\">AGE</p>\n</td>\n<td width=\"74%\" valign=\"top\" height=\"53\">\n<p align=\"left\">MOST LIKELY BEHAVIOUR PROBLEM<br />\n (in order of occurrence)</p>\n</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"26%\" valign=\"top\" height=\"66\">\n<p align=\"center\">0 - 6 m</p>\n</td>\n<td width=\"74%\" valign=\"top\" height=\"66\">Attention seeking behaviours<br />\n Fear aggression to people encountered out of home<br />\n Play-biting</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"26%\" valign=\"top\" height=\"66\">\n<p align=\"center\">6m - 1 year</p>\n</td>\n<td width=\"74%\" valign=\"top\" height=\"66\">Fear aggression to people encountered out of home<br />\n Attention seeking behaviours<br />\n Status related aggression</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"26%\" valign=\"top\" height=\"66\">\n<p align=\"center\">1 - 2 years</p>\n</td>\n<td width=\"74%\" valign=\"top\" height=\"66\">Status related aggression<br />\n Fear aggression to people encountered out of home<br />\n Fear aggression towards other dogs</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"26%\" valign=\"top\" height=\"66\">\n<p align=\"center\">2 - 3 years</p>\n</td>\n<td width=\"74%\" valign=\"top\" height=\"66\">Fear aggression towards other dogs<br />\n Fear aggression to people encountered out of home<br />\n Territorial Aggression</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"26%\" valign=\"top\" height=\"66\">\n<p align=\"center\">3 - 6 years</p>\n</td>\n<td width=\"74%\" valign=\"top\" height=\"66\">Fear aggression towards other dogs<br />\n Fear aggression to people encountered out of home<br />\n Aggression between same sex dogs in family</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"26%\" valign=\"top\" height=\"66\">\n<p align=\"center\">6 - 8 years</p>\n</td>\n<td width=\"74%\" valign=\"top\" height=\"66\">Separation Problem (over-attachment on owner)<br />\n Status related aggression<br />\n Fear aggression towards other dogs</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"26%\" valign=\"top\" height=\"66\">\n<p align=\"center\">Over 8 years</p>\n</td>\n<td width=\"74%\" valign=\"top\" height=\"66\">Separation Problem (over-attachment on owner)<br />\n Aggression between same sex dogs in family<br />\n Fear aggression towards people encountered out of home</td>\n</tr>\n</tbody>\n</table>\n<h2>REFERRAL OF SEPARATION PROBLEMS DUE TO OVER-ATTACHMENT</h2>\n<p>1998 saw the launch of two psychotropic drugs designed to provide support for the treatment of behaviour problems. One particular drug received a high level of media interest due to its use in cases of separation anxiety. Separation anxiety is a separation problem caused by the dog\'s over-attachment upon its owner and its subsequent inability to cope when left alone.</p>\n<p>The graph below displays the differences between the referral of cases during 1997 as compared with 1998. In each year approximately 8% of the total number of problems considered were those associated with separation anxiety.</p>\n<p><img width=\"500\" height=\"368\" align=\"middle\" src=\"http://www.apbc.org.uk/apbc_images/984.gif\" alt=\"\" /></p>\n<p>Both 1997 and 1998 follow a similar pattern of referral in that there is a dip in cases after February, a rise as summer approaches and another decrease during the holiday months.</p>\n<h2>SUMMARY OF CANINE CASES</h2>\n<ul>\n<li>The most common behavioural problem referred during 1998 is aggression towards people.</li>\n</ul>\n<ul>\n<li>Problems caused by fear - such as fear aggression, specific separation problems and phobias - tend to be linked with what was, in the counsellor\'s opinion, a lack of socialisation during the first year of life.</li>\n</ul>\n<ul>\n<li>The most common owner profile was one male and one female. Second was one owner, male or female. Third was a family unit of one male, one female and children under 18 years of age.</li>\n</ul>\n<ul>\n<li>Living with another dog during the first year of life does not replace the need for adequate socialisation with dogs of varying sizes and status.</li>\n</ul>\n<ul>\n<li>Dogs referred to a pet behaviour counsellor before they were 1 year old were more likely to have problematic attention-seeking behaviours than at any other age.</li>\n</ul>\n<ul>\n<li>Fear aggression towards people was the most commonly referred problem in dogs of all age groups except between 6 and 8 years of age.</li>\n</ul>\n<ul>\n<li>A separation problem (due to over-attachment on owner) is more likely to be referred in dogs over 6 years of age</li>\n</ul>\n<h3>Feline Cases</h3>\n<table cellspacing=\"0\" cellpadding=\"0\" border=\"0\">\n<tbody>\n<tr>\n<td><img width=\"500\" height=\"368\" src=\"http://www.apbc.org.uk/apbc_images/985.gif\" alt=\"\" /></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td><strong>Key to Graph</strong></td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>\n<table cellspacing=\"0\" cellpadding=\"0\" border=\"0\">\n<tbody>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"10%\">IM</td>\n<td width=\"90%\">Indoor Marking. Includes spraying, middening or scratching</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>AC</td>\n<td>Aggression towards cats. Possible causes include territory or social.</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>HT</td>\n<td>House training problems</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>AP</td>\n<td>Aggression towards people. Possible causes include fear.</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>O</td>\n<td>Others. e.g. avoidance behaviour</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>AS</td>\n<td>Attention seeking behaviours</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>F</td>\n<td>Fearful and phobic behaviour to auditory and visual stimuli</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>P</td>\n<td>Pica</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td>BP</td>\n<td>Bonding problems. e.g. over attachment.</td>\n</tr>\n</tbody>\n</table>\n</td>\n</tr>\n</tbody>\n</table>\n<p>&nbsp;</p>\n<h3>NUMBER OF PEOPLE WITHIN THE HOME (FELINE CASES)</h3>\n<table cellspacing=\"0\" cellpadding=\"0\" border=\"1\">\n<tbody>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"76%\" valign=\"top\">\n<p align=\"left\"><strong>Profile of owners</strong></p>\n</td>\n<td width=\"24%\" valign=\"top\">\n<p align=\"center\"><strong>Number of cases</strong></p>\n</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"76%\" valign=\"top\">One male and one female</td>\n<td width=\"24%\" valign=\"top\">\n<p align=\"center\">50</p>\n</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"76%\" valign=\"top\">One owner (male or female)</td>\n<td width=\"24%\" valign=\"top\">\n<p align=\"center\">12</p>\n</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"76%\" valign=\"top\">Two same sex owners (males or females)</td>\n<td width=\"24%\" valign=\"top\">\n<p align=\"center\">7</p>\n</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"76%\" valign=\"top\">Mixture of males <i>and</i> females over 18 years</td>\n<td width=\"24%\" valign=\"top\">\n<p align=\"center\">6</p>\n</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"76%\" valign=\"top\">Others</td>\n<td width=\"24%\" valign=\"top\">\n<p align=\"center\">5</p>\n</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"76%\" valign=\"top\">One male and one female and children under 18 years</td>\n<td width=\"24%\" valign=\"top\">\n<p align=\"center\">4</p>\n</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"76%\" valign=\"top\">One male and one female and one child under 18 years</td>\n<td width=\"24%\" valign=\"top\">\n<p align=\"center\">2</p>\n</td>\n</tr>\n</tbody>\n</table>\n<p>The most common owners of the cats referred for this Review are similar to the results for dog owners. The most common profile is one male and one female, the second most common is one male or female owner and the third, which differs from the dogs, is two same sex owners.</p>\n<p>Considering the profile of one male and one female, we found that the most likely behaviour problem that the cat was referred with was spraying. These cats were neutered in 84% of cases. They were most likely to be one of two within the home and 44% had a feline companion during the first year of life.</p>\n<p>Cats within the second most common profile of one male or female owner were most likely to display aggression towards the other cat in the home if the owner was male and territorial aggression or spraying if the owner was female. Cats belonging to single men that were referred with a behaviour problem was always neutered, had a companion at the time of referral and had a companion during the first year of life. The cats belonging to the single women were again, always neutered but were the only cat in the home and none had a feline companion during the first year of life. These numbers are too low to draw any relevant conclusions from.</p>\n<p>Within the third unit of two same sex owners, 85% of the cases referred were two males. Of these cases the most common problem was spraying urine within the home. All these cats had been neutered, there were two cats in the home at the time of referral and 85% had a companion during the first year of life.</p>\n<h2>OTHER CATS IN HOME</h2>\n<p>Of the 86 feline problems referred for this report, 47 (55%) were known to have had a canine companion during their first year of life. Of these cats, 43 (91%) were living with at least one other cat at the time of referral.</p>\n<p>Of the 39 remaining cats (45%) who did not have a feline companion during the first year of life or were not known to have had a feline companion, 25 (64%) were living with at least one other cat at the time of referral.</p>\n<p>The problem of most interest to this section is social aggression between cats in the home.</p>\n<p align=\"center\"><strong>Social aggression towards other cats in the home</strong></p>\n<p><img width=\"600\" height=\"368\" src=\"http://www.apbc.org.uk/apbc_images/986.gif\" alt=\"\" /></p>\n<h2>AGE WHEN REFERRED AND BEHAVIOUR PROBLEM RECORDED</h2>\n<table cellspacing=\"0\" cellpadding=\"6\" border=\"1\">\n<tbody>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"26%\" valign=\"top\" height=\"53\">\n<p align=\"center\">AGE</p>\n</td>\n<td width=\"74%\" valign=\"top\" height=\"53\">\n<p align=\"left\">MOST LIKELY BEHAVIOUR PROBLEM<br />\n (in order of occurrence)</p>\n</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"26%\" valign=\"top\" height=\"66\">\n<p align=\"center\">0 - 1 year</p>\n</td>\n<td width=\"74%\" valign=\"top\" height=\"66\">Exaggerated play (e.g. using aggression)<br />\n Predatory behaviour<br />\n Petting / biting syndrome</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"26%\" valign=\"top\" height=\"66\">\n<p align=\"center\">1 - 2 years</p>\n</td>\n<td width=\"74%\" valign=\"top\" height=\"66\">Spraying<br />\n House training problems<br />\n Territorial aggression towards other cats</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"26%\" valign=\"top\" height=\"66\">\n<p align=\"center\">2 - 3 years</p>\n</td>\n<td width=\"74%\" valign=\"top\" height=\"66\">Spraying<br />\n Social aggression within the home<br />\n House training problems</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"26%\" valign=\"top\" height=\"66\">\n<p align=\"center\">3 - 6 years</p>\n</td>\n<td width=\"74%\" valign=\"top\" height=\"66\">Spraying<br />\n Social aggression within the home<br />\n House training problems</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"26%\" valign=\"top\" height=\"66\">\n<p align=\"center\">6 - 8 years</p>\n</td>\n<td width=\"74%\" valign=\"top\" height=\"66\">Spraying<br />\n Social aggression within the home<br />\n House training problems</td>\n</tr>\n<tr>\n<td width=\"26%\" valign=\"top\" height=\"66\">\n<p align=\"center\">Over 8 years</p>\n</td>\n<td width=\"74%\" valign=\"top\" height=\"66\">Social aggression within the home<br />\n House training problems</td>\n</tr>\n</tbody>\n</table>\n<h2>SUMMARY OF FELINE CASES</h2>\n<ul>\n<li>The most common behaviour problem referred was indoor marking. The most likely form of indoor marking was spraying.</li>\n</ul>\n<ul>\n<li>Cats referred for behaviour treatment that belonged to one male or female owner were always neutered.</li>\n</ul>\n<ul>\n<li>Cats referred for behaviour treatment during their first year of life were likely to be showing problematic behaviours associated with learned aggression, predatory behaviour and petting / biting syndrome.</li>\n</ul>\n<ul>\n<li>Spraying was the most common behaviour problem to be referred in cats who were between 1 and 8 years when referred.</li>\n</ul>\n', created = 1502895600, expire = 1502982000, headers = '', serialized = 0 WHERE cid = '2:d9a49fc91a452cb40a28de1848ec24ef' in /home/jbellapbc/public_html/includes/cache.inc on line 108.
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  • user warning: Table './apbc_org_uk_@002d_member/cache_filter' is marked as crashed and last (automatic?) repair failed query: UPDATE cache_filter SET data = '<p><img alt=\"pack of dogs with owner\" class=\"img-right-border\" src=\"http://www.apbc.org.uk/sites/default/files/images/man_and_pack_of_dogs.jpg\" />Many leading animal behaviourists are concerned that the &ldquo;dominance&rdquo; model of pet dog behaviour continues to survive, despite the accumulating evidence that it is at best unhelpful and at worst highly detrimental.</p>\n', created = 1502895601, expire = 1502982001, headers = '', serialized = 0 WHERE cid = '2:5900b483bf525618a61d39a2a8affa70' in /home/jbellapbc/public_html/includes/cache.inc on line 108.

The authors of this report Emma Magnus BSc (Hons) MSc, David Appleby dipCABC and Gwen Bailey BSc (Hons) would like to thank the members of the APBC who submitted their data.

The APBC would like to thank Intervet UK Limited for their continuing support and interest in the APBC’s Annual Review of Cases.

Breakdown of cases submitted

 

Dogs

Cats

 

Males

Females

Males

Females

Number seen 777 474 50 36

% seen

62

38

57

43

% Neutered

55

64

98

100

Number of problems 1230 707 60 36

% of problems

64

36

52

48

Average number of problems per dog - 1.55 (1.58 per male and 1.49 per female)

MOST COMMON BREEDS REFERRED

 

Male dog breeds   Female dog breeds  
Crossbreeds Crossbreeds
German Shepherd Dogs German Shepherd Dogs
Border Collie Border Collie
Springer Spaniel Labrador
Labrador Springer Spaniel / Boxer
Jack Russell Terrier / West Highland White/ Golden Retriever
Golden Retriever  
Cocker Spaniel Jack Russell Terrier
Staffordshire Bull Terrier West Highland White
Schnauzer (all types) Staffordshire Bull Terrier / Springer Spaniel
Dachshund (all types) Yorkshire Terrier

 

Cat breeds    
Domestic Short Hair  
Burmese  
Siamese  
Persian  

CANINE CASES

Key to Graph
 
AP Aggression towards people. Possible causes include fear or status.
AD Aggression towards dogs. Possible causes include fear or rank.
SP Separation Problems - occur when separated from the owners.
AS Attention seeking behaviours. e.g. barking whilst on telephone.
F Fearful and phobic behaviour to auditory or visual stimuli
RB Repetitive behaviours. e.g. tail chasing.
Ch Inappropriate chase behaviour. e.g. towards vehicles or joggers.
HT House training problems.
T Training problems e.g. poor recall.
O Others. e.g. Escapology, Coprophagy and mounting.
Car Problems during travel.

Socialisation and Environmental Conditioning

The early experience of all animals has a profound influence on their later development. Adequate socialisation and environmental conditioning should be introduced as soon as possible, and maintained throughout the first year of life.

Socialisation is the process of introducing a variety of people and animals. Environmental conditioning (also called Habituation) is the process of introducing unusual environmental stimuli such as traffic, household noises and bad weather.

In previous years we have considered the importance of adequate socialisation in terms of its effect on behaviour problems. In 1995 we found that fear aggression towards other dogs and strangers, separation problems caused by fear, and phobic behaviours were more likely to occur in dogs that had not been adequately stimulated during their first year of life. We found that these problems were more likely to occur in dogs that had been reared in a kennel or kennel-type environment from birth.

This year we decided to look at the most common behaviour problems and percentage of dogs referred with these problems that, in the counsellors opinion had been well socialised during the first year of life.

Problem

Percentage

Status Aggression towards owners

59.6

Attention Seeking Behaviours

55.8

Separation anxiety

52

Fears and phobias

47.5

Separation problems due to fear

42.9

Fear aggression towards people

39.7

Fear aggression towards other dogs

36.2

As may have been predicted, behavioural problems associated with confidence feature more highly in well-socialised animals whereas problems due to fear and anxiety feature less strongly.

NUMBER OF PEOPLE WITHIN THE HOME (CANINE CASES)

Profile of owners

% of cases

One male and one female

44.4

One owner (male or female)

19.2

One male and one female and children under 18 years

18.6

One male and one female and one child under 18 years

15.3

Others

11.7

Mixture of males and females over 18 years

8.5

Two same sex owners (males or females)

5.7

The most common owners of the dogs referred for this Review are one male and one female within the home. The second most common profile was one male or female owner. The third profile was a family comprising of a male and female and children under 18 years of age.

Considering the situation of one male and one female, we found that the most likely behaviour problem to be referred was fear aggression towards dogs and fear aggression towards people encountered outside the home. Of these cases we found that approximately one quarter of them had had a canine companion during the first year of life. These dogs were also more likely to be the only dogs in the home at the time of referral.

Dogs within the second profile of one male or female owner were most likely to display status aggression if they were with a male and fear aggression towards other dogs if they were with a female. In both cases approximately 60% had been castrated and the counsellor considered 55% as having been adequately socialised. These dogs were most likely to be the only dogs in the home and approximately 30% had had a canine companion during the first year of life.

With the family unit of one male, one female and children under 18 years of age, status related aggression was found to be the most common problem referred. Of these dogs, 76% were the only dog in the home, only 15% had a companion during their first year of life and 65% were considered as being well socialised.

OTHER DOGS WITHIN THE HOME

In last year's Annual Review of Cases we looked at the referral of behaviour problems with regards to the number of dogs within the home. This year we have expanded on this to consider whether or not the dog also had a canine companion during the first year of life.

Of the 1251 canine problems considered for this report 387 (30%) were known to have had a canine companion during their first year of life. Of these dogs, 201 (52%) were living with one other dog when they were referred to a behaviour counsellor. This would probably be expected due to the continuing existence of the dog that was the companion during the first year of life or owner preference.

Of the 864 remaining dogs (70%) who did not have a canine companion during the first year of life or were not known to have had a canine companion during this time, 680 (79%) were living as the only dog within the home when they were referred.

The two problems of most interest to this section are fear aggression towards other dogs and aggression between dogs in the same home. The dogs that displayed fear aggression towards other dogs were found to be less likely to have been socialised or to have had a canine companion during their first year of life than the others that were referred for aggression towards another dog in the home.

In the first graph, the most important factor apparent in fear aggression towards other canines is the pet behaviour counsellor's assessment of socialisation. The presence of another dog during the first year of life does not appear to be as important although these two can be linked.

Fear Aggression towards canines - only canine in home

In the second graph, it appears that it is more likely that a dog that has lived with another dog will be aggressive to another dog it has lived with especially if it can be considered as having been well socialised.

Aggression between canines in the same home - two canines in home

Adequate socialisation with other canines needs to extend beyond one dog encountered within the home. Young dogs need to encounter several dogs of differing breeds to be able to adapt varying sizes and colours adequately.

Living with another dog within the first year of life is not a good enough substitute for adequate socialisation.

AGE WHEN REFERRED AND BEHAVIOUR PROBLEM RECORDED CANINE

AGE

MOST LIKELY BEHAVIOUR PROBLEM
(in order of occurrence)

0 - 6 m

Attention seeking behaviours
Fear aggression to people encountered out of home
Play-biting

6m - 1 year

Fear aggression to people encountered out of home
Attention seeking behaviours
Status related aggression

1 - 2 years

Status related aggression
Fear aggression to people encountered out of home
Fear aggression towards other dogs

2 - 3 years

Fear aggression towards other dogs
Fear aggression to people encountered out of home
Territorial Aggression

3 - 6 years

Fear aggression towards other dogs
Fear aggression to people encountered out of home
Aggression between same sex dogs in family

6 - 8 years

Separation Problem (over-attachment on owner)
Status related aggression
Fear aggression towards other dogs

Over 8 years

Separation Problem (over-attachment on owner)
Aggression between same sex dogs in family
Fear aggression towards people encountered out of home

REFERRAL OF SEPARATION PROBLEMS DUE TO OVER-ATTACHMENT

1998 saw the launch of two psychotropic drugs designed to provide support for the treatment of behaviour problems. One particular drug received a high level of media interest due to its use in cases of separation anxiety. Separation anxiety is a separation problem caused by the dog's over-attachment upon its owner and its subsequent inability to cope when left alone.

The graph below displays the differences between the referral of cases during 1997 as compared with 1998. In each year approximately 8% of the total number of problems considered were those associated with separation anxiety.

Both 1997 and 1998 follow a similar pattern of referral in that there is a dip in cases after February, a rise as summer approaches and another decrease during the holiday months.

SUMMARY OF CANINE CASES

  • The most common behavioural problem referred during 1998 is aggression towards people.
  • Problems caused by fear - such as fear aggression, specific separation problems and phobias - tend to be linked with what was, in the counsellor's opinion, a lack of socialisation during the first year of life.
  • The most common owner profile was one male and one female. Second was one owner, male or female. Third was a family unit of one male, one female and children under 18 years of age.
  • Living with another dog during the first year of life does not replace the need for adequate socialisation with dogs of varying sizes and status.
  • Dogs referred to a pet behaviour counsellor before they were 1 year old were more likely to have problematic attention-seeking behaviours than at any other age.
  • Fear aggression towards people was the most commonly referred problem in dogs of all age groups except between 6 and 8 years of age.
  • A separation problem (due to over-attachment on owner) is more likely to be referred in dogs over 6 years of age

Feline Cases

Key to Graph
IM Indoor Marking. Includes spraying, middening or scratching
AC Aggression towards cats. Possible causes include territory or social.
HT House training problems
AP Aggression towards people. Possible causes include fear.
O Others. e.g. avoidance behaviour
AS Attention seeking behaviours
F Fearful and phobic behaviour to auditory and visual stimuli
P Pica
BP Bonding problems. e.g. over attachment.

 

NUMBER OF PEOPLE WITHIN THE HOME (FELINE CASES)

Profile of owners

Number of cases

One male and one female

50

One owner (male or female)

12

Two same sex owners (males or females)

7

Mixture of males and females over 18 years

6

Others

5

One male and one female and children under 18 years

4

One male and one female and one child under 18 years

2

The most common owners of the cats referred for this Review are similar to the results for dog owners. The most common profile is one male and one female, the second most common is one male or female owner and the third, which differs from the dogs, is two same sex owners.

Considering the profile of one male and one female, we found that the most likely behaviour problem that the cat was referred with was spraying. These cats were neutered in 84% of cases. They were most likely to be one of two within the home and 44% had a feline companion during the first year of life.

Cats within the second most common profile of one male or female owner were most likely to display aggression towards the other cat in the home if the owner was male and territorial aggression or spraying if the owner was female. Cats belonging to single men that were referred with a behaviour problem was always neutered, had a companion at the time of referral and had a companion during the first year of life. The cats belonging to the single women were again, always neutered but were the only cat in the home and none had a feline companion during the first year of life. These numbers are too low to draw any relevant conclusions from.

Within the third unit of two same sex owners, 85% of the cases referred were two males. Of these cases the most common problem was spraying urine within the home. All these cats had been neutered, there were two cats in the home at the time of referral and 85% had a companion during the first year of life.

OTHER CATS IN HOME

Of the 86 feline problems referred for this report, 47 (55%) were known to have had a canine companion during their first year of life. Of these cats, 43 (91%) were living with at least one other cat at the time of referral.

Of the 39 remaining cats (45%) who did not have a feline companion during the first year of life or were not known to have had a feline companion, 25 (64%) were living with at least one other cat at the time of referral.

The problem of most interest to this section is social aggression between cats in the home.

Social aggression towards other cats in the home

AGE WHEN REFERRED AND BEHAVIOUR PROBLEM RECORDED

AGE

MOST LIKELY BEHAVIOUR PROBLEM
(in order of occurrence)

0 - 1 year

Exaggerated play (e.g. using aggression)
Predatory behaviour
Petting / biting syndrome

1 - 2 years

Spraying
House training problems
Territorial aggression towards other cats

2 - 3 years

Spraying
Social aggression within the home
House training problems

3 - 6 years

Spraying
Social aggression within the home
House training problems

6 - 8 years

Spraying
Social aggression within the home
House training problems

Over 8 years

Social aggression within the home
House training problems

SUMMARY OF FELINE CASES

  • The most common behaviour problem referred was indoor marking. The most likely form of indoor marking was spraying.
  • Cats referred for behaviour treatment that belonged to one male or female owner were always neutered.
  • Cats referred for behaviour treatment during their first year of life were likely to be showing problematic behaviours associated with learned aggression, predatory behaviour and petting / biting syndrome.
  • Spraying was the most common behaviour problem to be referred in cats who were between 1 and 8 years when referred.